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Oxygen, a continuous need
4.  DarwinE (1801) Zoonomia; or, The Laws of Organic Life, Third Edition, Vol.
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Placental to pulmonary blood-volume shift with the first breath
5.  Redmond A, Isana S, Ingall D (1965) Relation of onset of respiration to
placental transfusion. Lancet 1 (6 Feb):283-285.

Alveolar expansion
6.  Jäykkä, S (1958) Capillary erection and the structural appearance of fetal
and neonatal lungs. Acta Pædiatrica 47:484-500.
7.  Mercer JS, Skovgaard RL. (2002) Neonatal transitional physiology: a new
paradigm. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs. 2002 Mar;15(4):56-75.

Picture of Erasmus Darwin
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respiration. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2003 Jul;88(4):F346-8.
Postnatal placental respiration
8.  Dunn PM (1966) Postnatal Placental Respiration. Developmental Medicine
and Child Neurology 8: 60-608.

Controversy over umbilical cord clamping
9.  White C (1773) A Treatise on the Management of Pregnant and Lying-In
Women. Canton, MA: Science History Publications, 1987
10.  Darwin E (1801) Zoonomia; or, The Laws of Organic Life, Third Edition,
Vol. III, London: J Johnson, p 302.
11 Budin P (1875, 1876) A quel moment doit-on pratiquer la ligature du
cordon ombilical? Le Progrès Médical 3 (#51):750-751, (#52):765-767, 4 (#1):
12. Hofmeier M (1878) Ueber den Zeitpunkt der Abnablung Centralblatt Für
Gynäkologie 2:409-411
13. v. Engel G (1885) Über den Zeitpunkt der Abnabelung. Centralblatt für
Gynäkologie 46: 721-727.
14. Rachmanow AN (1914) Methode der Nichtunterbindung der Nabelschnur.  
Ausgeführt bei 10000 Geburten in der Städtisxhen Gebäranstalt in memoriam
von Frau Abrikosowa in Moskau. Zentralblatt für Gynäkologie 38:590-592
15. Frischkorn HB, Rucker MP (1939) The relationship of the time of ligation of
the cord to the red blood count of the infant.  American Journal of Obstetrics
and Gynecology 38: 592-594.
16. Wilson EE, Windle WF, Alt HL (1941) Deprivation of placental blood as a
cause of iron deficiency in infants. Am. J. Dis. Child. 62:320-327.
17. Price EW (1944) Why tie the cord? British Medical Journal, 1944 1:772
18. Vaughn K (1944) Why tie the cord? British Medical Journal 1944 2:58
19. Chesterman CC (1944) Why tie the cord? British Medical Journal 1944 2:
20. Jackson GA (1944) Why tie the cord? British Medical Journal, 1944 2:125
21. Gunther M (1957) The transfer of blood between baby and placenta in the
minutes after birth. Lancet 1957 1:1277-1280
22. Mahaffey LW, Rossdale PD (1957) The newborn infant's oxygen-supply.
Lancet 2(13 Jul):95.
23. Whipple GA, Sisson TR, Lund CJ (1957) Delayed ligation of the umbilical
cord; its influence on the blood volume of the newborn. Obstet Gynecol. 1957
24. Leak WN (1959) When to tie the cord. British Medical Journal 1959 1:584-
25. Hudson AT (1967) Relation of time of ligation of umbilical cord to neonatal
anemia. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 1967 Aug;66(12):1369-72.
26. Emmanouilides GC & Moss AJ (1971) Respiratory distress in the newborn:
effect of cord clamping before and after onset of respiration. Biol Neonate.
27. Saigal S, O'Neill A, Surainder Y, Chua LB, Usher R. (1972) Placental
transfusion and hyperbilirubinemia in the premature. Pediatrics. 1972 Mar;49
28. Theorell K, Prechtl HF, Blair AW, Lind J. (1973) Behavioural state cycles of
normal newborn infants. A comparison of the effects of early and late cord
clamping. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1973 Oct; 15(5): 597-605
29. Künzel W. (1982) Abnabelung – Überlegungen zur Wahl des richtigen
Zeitpunktes - [Cord clamping at birth - considerations for choosing the right
time]. Z Geburtshilfe Perinatol. 1982 Apr-May; 186(2): 59-64.
30. Dunn PM. (1988) Tight nuchal cord and neonatal hypovolaemic shock.
Arch Dis Child. 1988 May; 63(5): 570-1
31. Morley GM (1998) Cord closure: can hasty clamping injure the newborn?
OBG Management 7:29-36.
32. Dunn PM. (1992) Banking umbilical cord blood. Lancet. 1992 Aug 1; 340
(8814): 309
33. Buckley S.  (2001) A natural approach to the third stage of labour. A look
at early cord clamping, cord blood harvesting, and other medical interference.  
Midwifery Today Int Midwife. 2001 Fall;(59):33-6.
34. Mercer JS. (2001) Current best evidence: a review of the literature on
umbilical cord clamping. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2001 Nov-Dec;46(6):402-
35. Capasso L, Raimondi F, Capasso A, Crivaro V, Capasso R, Paludetto R.
(2003) Early cord clamping protects at-risk neonates from polycythemia. Biol
Neonate. 2003;83(3):197-200.

Textbooks of obstetrics and midwifery
36. Churchill F (1850) On the Theory and Practice of Midwifery. London:
Henry Renshaw.
37. Swayne JG (1856) Obstetric Aphorisms: For the use of students
commencing midwifery practice. London: John Churchill.
38. Lusk WT (1882) The Science and Art of Midwifery.  New York: D Appleton
and Company, pp214-215
39. Leishman W (1888) A System of Midwifery Glasgow James MacLehose &
40. Corney, BG (1899) Instructions with reference to the treatment of the
umbilical cord.
41. King AFA (1907) A Manual of Obstetrics, Tenth Edition.  Lea Brothers &
Co., Philadelphia and New York
42. Jellett, H (1910) A Manual of Midwifery for Students and Practitioners.  New
York: William Wood & Company MDCCCCX
43. Williams JW (1917) Obstetrics: A Text-Book for the Use of Students and
Practitioners, Fourth Edition.
44. von Reuss, AR (1921) The Diseases of the Newborn.  New York William
Wood & Co, MCMXXI (Vienna, January 1914)
45. DeLee JB (1930) The Principles and Practice of Obstetrics.  Philadelphia
and London: WB Saunders Company.
46. Curtis AH, ed (1933) Obstetrics and Gynecology (3 vols).  Philadelphia &
London: WB Saunders Company.
47. Fitzgibbon, G (1937) Obstetrics. Browne and Nolan Limited,
Dublin/Belfast/Cork/Waterford, 1937.
48. Johnstone RW  (1949) A Text-Book of Midwifery, for Students and
Practitioners, Fourteenth Edition. London: Adam and Charles Black.
49. Greenhill JP (1951) Principles and Practice of Obstetrics; originally by
Joseph B. DeLee, M.D., Tenth Edition.  W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia
and London.
50. Greenhill, JP (1955) Obstetrics Eleventh Edition WB Saunders Company,
Philadelphia and London.  
51. Greenhill JP (1965) Obstetrics: From the original text of Joseph B. DeLee,
MD. Thirteenth Edition. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia & London.
52. Garrey MM, Govan ADT, Hodge C, Callander R (1974) Obstetrics
Illusrated, Second Edition, Churchill Livingstgone: Edinburgh and London.
53. Bodyazhina V (1983) Textbook of Obstetrics: Translated from the Russian
by Alexander Rosinkin (revised from the 1980 edition). Mir Publishers, Moscow.
54. Beischer, NA, MacKay EV (1986) Obstetrics and the Newborn: An
illustrated textbook, Second Edition.  WB Saunders Company, Sydney,
Philadelphia, London, Toronto, Tokyo, Hong Kong, 1986.

Change of opinion
55. Eastman HJ (1950) Williams Obstetrics, Tenth Edition, pp 397-398

Fear of jaundice
56. Saigal S, Usher RH. (1977) Symptomatic neonatal plethora. Biol Neonate.

Obstetric protocols
57. Turrentine JE (2003) Clinical Protocols in Obstetrics and Gynecology,
Second Edition.  The Parthenon Publishing Group, Boca Raton, London, New
York, Washington DC.

Textbooks promoting immediate clamping of the umbilical cord
58. Hibbard, Bryan M (1988) Principles of Obstetrics.  Butterworths, London,
Boston, Durban, Singapore, Sydney, Toronto, Wellington.
59. Chamberlain G, Gibbins CR, Dewhurst (1989) Illustrated Textbook of
Obstetrics J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia.
60. McGregor Kelly, J (1994) General Care (chapt 22) in Avery GB, /fletcher
MA, MacDonald MG, eds .  Neonatology, Pathophysiology and Management of
the Newborn, Fourth Edition.  J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 1994.
61. Chanberlain G & Bowen-Simpkins P (2000) A Practice of Obstetrics and
Gynecology, a Textbook for General Practice and the DRCOG. Third Edition.
Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, London, New York
62. Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL (2002)  Obstetrics: Normal and Problem
Pregnancies, Fourth Edition.  Churchill Livingstone, Harcourt Health Sciences:
New York, Edinburgh, London, Philadelphia.

Hypovolemic shock
63. Murray NA, Roberts IA. Neonatal transfusion practice. Arch Dis Child Fetal
Neonatal Ed. 2004 Mar;89(2):F101-7.

Pulsation of the umbilical cord stump and respiratory distress
64. Desmond MM, Kay JL, Megarity AL (1959) The phases of "transitional
distress" occurring in neonates in association with prolonged postnatal
umbilical cord pulsations. Journal of Pediatrics 55:131-151.

Ischemic brain damage
65. Ranck JB, Windle WF (1959). Brain damage in the monkey, Macaca
mulatta, by asphyxia neonatorum.  Experimental Neurology 1: 130-154.
66. Jacobson HN & Windle WF (1960) Responses of foetal and new-born
monkeys to asphyxia.  The Journal of Physiology (London) 153:447-456.
67. Windle, W. F. (1969). Brain damage by asphyxia at birth. Scientific
American, 221(#4), 76-84.
68. Faro MD, Windle WF (1969) Transneuronal degeneration in brains of
monkeys asphyxiated at birth. Experimental Neurology 24: 38-53.
69. Berman D, Karalitzky AR, Berman AJ (1971) Auditory thresholds in
monkeys asphyxiated at birth.  Experimental Neurology 31:140-149.
70. Myers RE (1972) Two patterns of perinatal brain damage and their
conditions of occurrence.  American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 112:
71. Sechzer JA, Faro MD, Windle WF. Studies of monkeys asphyxiated at
birth: implications for minimal cerebral dysfunction.  Semin Psychiatry. 1973

Language development
72. Moore JK, Perazzo LM, Braun A (1995). Time course of axonal myelination
in the human brainstem auditory pathway.  Hearing Research 87:21-31, 91:
73. Yakovlev PI and Lecours A-R (1967) The myelogenetic cycles of regional
maturation of the brain.  In A. Minkowski (Ed.), Regional Development of the
Brain in Early Life (pp. 3-70).  Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
74. Brown R (1973) A First Language: The Early Stages. Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press.
75. VonHungen K, Roberts S, Hill DF (1974) Developmental and regional
variations in neurotransmitter-sensitive adenylate cyclase systems in cell-free
preparations from rat brain. Journal of Neurochemistry 22:811-819.
76. Kungel M and Friauf E (1995). Somatostatin and leu-enkephalin in the rat
auditory brainstem during fetal and postnatal development.  Anatomy and
Embryology, 191, 425-443.

Jaundice of brainstem nuclei damaged by ischemia
77. Orth J (1875) Ueber das Vorkommen von Bilirubinkrystallen bei
neugebornen Kindern.  Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie
und für klinische Medicin 63:447-462.
80. Schmörl G (1904) Zur Kenntnis des Ikterus neonatorum, insbesondere der
dabie auftretenden Gehirn veränderungen.  Verhandlung der deutschen
pathologischen Gesellschaft 6:109-115.
81, Zimmerman HM and Yannet H (1933). Kernicterus: jaundice of the nuclear
masses of the brain.  American Journal of Diseases of Children, 45, 740-759.
82. Dublin WB (1951) Neurologic lesions of erythroblastosis fetalis in relation
to nuclear deafness. Am J Clin Pathol. 1951 Oct;21(10):935-9
83. Kelemen G (1956) Erythroblastosis fetalis: pathologic report on the
hearing organs of a newborn infant. Archives of Otolaryngology 63: 392-398
84. Rozdilsky B, Olszewski J (1961) Experimental study of the toxicity of
bilirubin in newborn animals. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1961 Apr;20:193-205.
85. Lucey JF, Hibbard E, Behrman RE, Esquival FO, Windle WF (1964)
Kernicterus in asphyxiated newborn monkeys.  Experimental Neurology 9:43-
86. Jirka JH, Duckrow RB, Kendig JW, Maisels MJ (1985)Effect of bilirubin on
brainstem auditory evoked potentials in the asphyxiated rat. Pediatr Res. 1985
87. Ives NK, Cox DW, Gardiner RM, Bachelard HS (1988)The effects of
bilirubin on brain energy metabolism during normoxia and hypoxia: an in vitro
study using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Pediatr Res. 1988

Placental fetal-maternal blood barrier
88. Dunn PM, Fraser ID, Raper AB (1966) Influence of early cord ligation on
the transplacental passage of foetal cells. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw.
1966 Oct;73(5):757-60.
89. Dunn PM (1966) The placental venous pressure during and after the third
stage of labour following early cord ligation. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw.
1966 Oct;73(5):747-56.

Greater Male vulnerability
90. Simon N, Volicer L (1976) Neonatal asphyxia in the rat: greater
vulnerability of males and persistent effects on brain monoamine synthesis.
Journal of Neurochemistry 26:893-900.
91. Stevenson DK, Verter J, Fanaroff AA, Oh W, Ehrenkranz RA, Shankaran
S, Donovan EF, Wright LL, Lemons JA, Tyson JE, Korones SB, Bauer CR,
Stoll BJ, Papile LA (2000) Sex differences in outcomes of very low birthweight
infants: the newborn male disadvantage. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed
2000 Nov;83(3):F182-5
92. Sheiner E, Levy A, Katz M, Hershkovitz R, Leron E, Mazor M (2004)
Gender does matter in perinatal medicine. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2004 Jul-Aug;19
93. American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
of Mental Disorders, DSM-IV. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric

Human assisted animal birth
94. Mahaffey LW, Rossdale PD (1959) A convulsive syndrome in newborn
foals resembling pulmonary syndrome in the newborn infant. Lancet. 1959 Jun
From the bibliography for
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